(also known as olfactics; adjectival form: “olfactory”) - the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialised sensory cells of the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and, by analogy, sensory cells of the antennae of invertebrates. Many vertebrates, including most mammals and reptiles, have two distinct olfactory systems—the main olfactory system and the accessory olfactory system (used mainly to detect pheromones). For air-breathing animals, the main olfactory system detects volatile chemicals and the accessory olfactory system detects fluid-phase chemicals. For water-dwelling organisms such as fish or crustaceans, the chemicals are present in the surrounding water. Olfaction, along with taste, is a form of chemoreception. The chemicals themselves that activate the olfactory system, in general at very low concentrations, are called odorants.